Category: Pensacola News Journal

History Surrounds Gull Point – Pensacola Florida

By Alice Crann
Staff Reporter
Pensacola New Journal

Gull Point may be one of Pensacola’s smallest neighborhoods, consisting of six families, but history shows this area was once a very prolific and prominent region of northwest Florida.

The tract of land known as Gull Pint, previously known as Punta del Diablo or Devil’s Point, is located about seven miles northeast of downtown Pensacola on the Escambia Bay.

According to Lee Sutton, historical researcher and clerk of the circuit court, Mariana Bonifay received the original Spanish land grant at Gull Point as a gratuity from the Spanish king.  She was one of the first business women of Pensacola from 1790 until her death in 1829.  Bonifay, who was a building-contractor and involved in the brickyard business, was responsible for many of Pensacola first buildings built during the Spanish era.

Manual Bonifay, one of Bonifay’s 14 children, inherited her industriousness and became her business manager. Alongside his involvement in his mother’s various projects, he planted orange groves in different sections on the 251 acres of Gull Point.

Knowing his mother never wrote a will dividing the land among her children and realizing the complications that might arise at the time of his mother’s death, Manuel was concerned about getting the share of land where the orange trees were planted.  The orange groves were quite a family business issue before Manuel died in 1827.

Because Bonifay never went through the proper legal channels stating how she wanted the Gull Point property divided among her family after her death, the courts sold portions of the 251 acres of Gull Point to different people.  On Dec.31,1830 portions of Gull Point were sold to Juan de la Rua, who purchased three acres before Bonifay’s death and to Moses G. Yniestra.

Due to the large size of the Bonifay family and all the different people involved, the Bonifay land settlement was known as the Mariana and Manual Bonifay settlement.  Nearly 100 years passed before the courts completely settled the estate.

During the year of 1822 while Juan de la Rua was mayor and living on Gull Point, Pensacola was chosen as the site for the first session of legislature.  A local legend says because of the yellow fever epidemic that hit Pensacola that year, the first session of the legislature was held in the yard of the de la Rua home under a large oak tree.  The legend also states it is likely one or two meetings of the delegates were held there, including  the Andrew Jackson meetings.  The large oak tree, which is still standing on Gull Point today, is known as Constitution Oak.

At the time of de la Rua’s death, the de la Rua portion of Gull Point was sold by his wife, Margaretta, to Judge John Cameron on May 6, 1833.

Cameron merged with Walker Anderson and Benjamin Overman in a stream saw-mill business which they built on Gull Point.  Due to extended credit and excessive indebtness that accumulated while running the saw-mill, Cameron lost the business and the property on Gull Point.

At this point in the ownership of the Gull Point property the records are vague.  It is possible Yniestra bought the Cameron portion of Gull Point at the time Cameron lost it.

Court records do show Dr. John A. Brosnaham did purchase the 251 acres of Gull Point around 1875 from Yniestra.

After Brosnaham bought the property, he had a photograph taken of the house which shows the orange trees planted by Bonifay some 50 years earlier.  Brosnaham shipped the oranges in his own boat to Pensacola where he sold them in the old market house on Palafox and Main streets.

For the first time since the original Spanish land grant, the Gull Point property evolved from family ownership to corporate ownership.  On Feb. 7, 1902, Brosnaham and his wife, Sallie, sold Gull Point to the Pensacola Tar and Turpentine Company for $3,500.

According to a deed recorded in the office of the Secretary of State, a corporation known as the Pensacola Tar and Turpentine Co. was forming in 1901.  D.Y. McMillan, H.H. Boyer,  B. Forbes,  H.N. Roberts,  J.M. Muldon,  L.M. Levy and F.E. Mariner formed the company with a capital investment of $24,000 divided into shares of $100 each.

The Gull Point property would become the site for the construction of a flotation business and a community for its workers.

According to the late Professor H. Clay Armstrong, the Pensacola Tar and Turpentine Co. was the first plant built for the extraction of rosin, turpentine and tar from pine log stumps.

The company provided a very close-fitting community for its workers.  Housing was built for both the white and blue-collar workers between 1902 and 1906.  A train depot was built allowing the L&N railroad to make three mail deliveries a day.  A company store offered the only provisions that could be bought with the coupons by which the employees were paid.  Because all services were offered by the plant, people on both sides of the track were dependent on the company.

The war years hurt the port city, causing foreign trade to drop off in 1918.  The hustle and bustle of the port picked up a little after the war, but Pensacola’s cypress trees were of little use in an age of steel ships.

Due to the decreased importance of lumber, the 1920’s and early 1930’s were a period of comparative stagnation in Pensacola’s economic growth.  By the end of the late 30’s the method used to process the pine products had progressed.

By Feb. 23, 1927, the Pensacola Tar and Turpentine Co. had merged with the National Turpentine Co.  of Jacksonville.  On the following Feb. 13,1928 the National Turpentine  Products Co sold out to the Wood Chemical Co. of Cleveland, Ohio for $1.

From 1927 to 1946 the original houses built by the Pensacola Tar and Turpentine Co. on Gull Point were rented from Sam Fletcher of Jacksonville.  Not wanting to sell the land piece  by piece, in 1946 Fletcher subdivided the Gull Point land and sold it to interested families.

Life on Gull Point has slowed down considerably in comparison to the Spanish era and lumber boom.  The lush green woods and large oak trees festooned with Spanish moss keep the home-owners on Gull Point isolated in a nice way.

Now included in the city limits, the people of Gull Point are close to everything and want for nothing, especially privacy

Women’s History Month – Mariana Bonifay

Women’s History Month – Mariana Bonifay
Published Pensacola News Journal, Sun., Mar. 30, 2003.

Women`s History Month shouldn`t be allowed to slip by – as it`s about to do – without spotlighting Mariana Bonifay, a pioneering Pensacola businesswoman if ever there was one. Bonifay bought land, built houses and made money in Pensacola 200 years ago. And she did it all while raising 14 children – the count varies, but 14 seems the popular number – and that, mind you, before the days of Sesame Street and Mothers` Morning Out (not to mention some relevant medical advancements). The next time they bring a film festival to town, I think they should include a movie about Mariana. Besides being an adventurous and astute businesswoman, she fulfills another must-have for Hollywood scripts: the love angle. It`s almost certain that the “community of interests” – so described in her will – that she shared for 30 years or more with business partner Charles LaValle did not include a marriage certificate, although it did produce six or more of her children. One tidbit filmmakers aren`t likely to overlook: Historic accounts indicate she was carrying her third child by LaValle when she received word that her husband, Joseph Bonifay, had been killed the year before, in 1801. Mr. Bonifay, who was apparently in the military – perhaps the Spanish – hadn`t been heard from for several years. Mariana was born in France about 1760, married on the island of Santo Domingo and moved to then-Spanish ruled Pensacola about 1781, according to Pensacola Historical Society records. She bought a house on West Intendencia Street in 1784 – in her maiden name of Mariana Pingrow – for herself and then-five children. In 1790, to earn a livelihood, she formed the partnership with LaValle, a neighbor and carpenter, then about 18. She provided cash for lumber, apparently drawing on family means, and he built the homes for the town`s rapidly growing population (likely numbering about 600 by 1795) – colonization being encouraged by the Spanish government. Home lots were acquired through land grant or tax sales. One LaValle home, circa 1805, still stands, on Church Street. In 1807 the partners also invested in a brickyard, which in 1807 to 1808 turned out some 290,200 bricks, in three years netting $6,058 profit. The business climate was rough-hewn in Mariana Bonifay`s time. Pensacola was a frontier town, surrounded by sometimes- unfriendly Indians and flying under a different flag every 20 years or so. (Also lacking, needless to say, were today`s niceties of paved streets, indoor plumbing and e-mail.) Mariana Bonifay defied convention (as well as conventional morality): She pursued business at a time when women were expected to stick to hearth and home. “She was a successful businesswoman and extremely independent – that was one of the keys to her success,” said Randall Broxton, Pensacola Junior College history professor. Despite obstacles, she grew in wealth and status. When Andrew Jackson came to govern the newly American possession in 1821, he and wife Rachel were entertained by Mariana in her bayshore home. She died in 1829. About the time of the Civil War, her descendants constituted a goodly share – some say one-third – of Pensacola`s population. Now there`s a woman who made history.

Pioneer, entrepreneur and mother of 10: Bonifay helped shape Scenic Highway

Pioneer, entrepreneur and mother of 10: Bonifay helped shape Scenic Highway

Published, Tuesday, March, 13, 2001 Pensacola News Journal, Nicole Lozare

She has been called the Mother of Pensacola, and she literally helped build the Scenic Highway area with her successful brickyard. Yet, after more than 200 years, French-born Marianna Pingrow Bonifay’s life in Pensacola is still a bit mysterious. Books and other research materials have conflicting reports on everything from her name to the number of children she had to which Pensacola gentleman she considered her companion. “Basically, the amount of surviving records are limited. So there’s different interpretations,” said Tom Muir, museum administrator for the Historic Pensacola Preservation Board. Historians agree, though, that Bonifay and her descendants left an enduring mark on Pensacola. The pioneer came to Pensacola in the late 1700s . A single mom, she raised 10 children, according to one count, produced 145,000 bricks a year at her Bonifay Brickyards and juggled several other business interests from real estate to cattle farming. The grand matriarch of the Bonifay family, which still thrives in Pensacola today, lived and constructed her brickyards on what is now Scenic Highway. Historians believe that Bonifay came to America with her husband, Joseph Bonifay, who may have been connected to the Spanish military forces stationed in New Orleans and Pensacola. “We don’t know if he ever arrived here. We surmised that he was on the Gulf Coast with the Louisiana regiment and that at a later time period she has a relationship with Charles Lavalle,” said Muir. There is no record that Marianna and Joseph Bonifay ever lived together in Pensacola. She had six children with Bonifay. By 1784, Marianna Bonifay, then 26, was living with Sgt. Josef Domingo, 42, with one of her three children, his two children and four family servants, according to the 1784 census. She later purchased land from Domingo, which she put in her name instead of her husband’s, as was the usual practice at that time. All of Bonifay’s children read and wrote French and Spanish. They also knew how to keep books, just like their mother. One historian wrote that the children also picked up pieces of American Indian dialect as well as some army expressions not fit to print. In 1790, Bonifay invested her entire estate in a business venture with Lavalle, a carpenter and builder. The two would acquire new property, fix it up and then sell it for a profit. They became both business and romantic partners, owning several properties in Pensacola. They also had four children together, Muir said. She and Lavalle owned a home on Gaberonne Point and operated brick kilns near the clay bluffs on Escambia Bay. Bonifay also owned a cattle ranch in Cantonment. When she died in 1829, Bonifay left several properties on Scenic Highway to her children. She died, as she had requested, at her “country abode on the Bay of Scambia.”